The United Nations has a dedicated agency for worldwide public health called the World Health Organization (WHO).The organization was founded on April 7, 1948, and is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland. Its primary objective is to ensure the attainment of the highest possible level of health for all people worldwide. The WHO is a global leader in the promotion of health, the prevention of diseases, and the treatment of illnesses. In this article, we’ll explore the history, structure, functions, and challenges of the World Health Organization.

History of the WHO

The World Health Organization was established in the aftermath of World War II when the United Nations was formed. The idea of creating an international organization dedicated to public health emerged in the early 20th century, but it was not until the end of the Second World War that the need for such an organization became apparent. In 1946, the United Nations Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) established a committee to study the feasibility of creating a global health organization. The committee submitted its report in 1947, and on April 7, 1948, the World Health Organization was established as a specialized agency of the United Nations.

Structure of the WHO

The World Health Organization is headed by a Director-General who is appointed by the Executive Board and approved by the World Health Assembly. The Director-General serves a term of five years and is responsible for the organization’s day-to-day operations. The WHO has six regional offices that are responsible for implementing the organization’s policies and programs at the regional level. These regional offices are located in Africa, the Americas, Europe, Southeast Asia, Eastern Mediterranean, and the Western Pacific.

Functions of the WHO

The World Health Organization has a wide range of functions, including:

Providing leadership on global health matters: The WHO is responsible for providing leadership on global health matters, including setting norms and standards, promoting research and innovation, and coordinating and monitoring international health activities.

Providing technical assistance and support: The WHO provides technical assistance and support to countries to help them improve their health systems, prevent and control diseases, and promote health.

Promoting health and preventing diseases: The WHO promotes health and prevents diseases by developing policies and guidelines, conducting research, and supporting the implementation of evidence-based interventions.

Monitoring health trends and indicators: The WHO monitors health trends and indicators at the global, regional, and national levels to identify emerging health threats and guide policy development.

Coordinating responses to health emergencies: The WHO coordinates responses to health emergencies, such as epidemics and natural disasters, by providing technical assistance, mobilizing resources, and supporting national and international efforts.

Challenges facing the WHO

The World Health Organization faces several challenges in achieving its mandate of ensuring the attainment of the highest possible level of health for all people worldwide. Some of the challenges include:

Funding: The WHO relies on funding from member states and donors to carry out its programs and activities. However, funding is often inadequate, and the organization is frequently under-resourced, which hinders its ability to carry out its functions effectively.

Political interference: The WHO is sometimes subject to political interference from member states, which can undermine its independence and impartiality.

Health inequities: Health inequities, both within and between countries, remain a significant challenge for the WHO. These inequities are driven by factors such as poverty, social determinants of health, and lack of access to health services.

Emergence of new and re-emerging diseases: The emergence of new and re-emerging diseases, such as Ebola and Zika, poses a significant challenge to the WHO and global health security.


The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a crucial role in promoting health and well-being worldwide. Through its leadership, technical expertise, and collaborative partnerships, the WHO has made significant progress in addressing global health challenges such as infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, mental health, and environmental health.

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